The Metaphysical Poets
•Poetry tended to be more personal and more private.
•It was often published for only a limited circle of readers. •The term ‘metaphysical’ was used to describe their work by the 18th critic, Samuel Johnson. •Johnson intended the adjective to be pejorative. He attacked the poets’ lack of feeling, their learning and the surprising range of images and comparisons they used. •The Metaphysical term is now used to describe the modern impact of their writing. •They used contemporary scientific discoveries and theories, the topical debates on humanism, faith, and eternity, colloquial speech-based rhythms, and innovative verse forms
•To examine the relationship between the individual, his God, and the universe. •Their ‘conceits’, mataphors and images, paradoxes and intellectual complexity make the poems a constant challenge to the reader. •John Donne and George Herbert can be seen as experimenters both in poetic form and the subject matter they used. They were also innovators in linguistic directness of expression. •They reflected in poetry the intellectual and spiritual challenges of an age which wanted to expand human horizons.
John Donne was born in 1572 in London, England. He is known as the founder of the Metaphysical Poets, a term created by Samuel Johnson, an eighteenth-century English essayist, poet, and philosopher.
by John Donne
MARK but this flea, and mark in this,
How little that which thou deniest me is ;
It suck'd me first, and now sucks thee,
And in this flea our two bloods mingled be.
Thou know'st that this cannot be said
A sin, nor shame, nor loss of maidenhead ;
Yet this enjoys before it woo,
And pamper'd swells with one blood made of two ;
And this, alas ! is more than we would do.
O stay, three lives in one flea spare,
Where we almost, yea, more than married are.
This flea is you and I, and this
Our marriage bed, and marriage temple is.
Though parents grudge, and you, we're met,
And cloister'd in these living walls of jet.
Though use make you apt to kill me,
Let not to that self-murder added be,
And sacrilege, three sins in killing three.
Cruel and sudden, hast thou since
Purpled thy nail in blood of innocence?
Wherein could this flea guilty be,
Except in that drop which it suck'd from thee?
Yet thou triumph'st, and say'st that thou
Find'st not thyself nor me the weaker now.
'Tis true ; then learn how false fears be ;
Just so much honour, when thou yield'st to me,
Will waste, as this flea's death took life from thee.
The English poet and politician Andrew Marvell (1621-1678), one of the writers of the 17th century most admired by the 20th, composed lyric poetry which is sensuous, witty, elegant, and sometimes passionate.
A Garden: Written after the Civil Wars
SEE how the flowers, as at parade,
Under their colours stand display'd:
Each regiment in order grows,
That of the tulip, pink, and rose.
But when the vigilant patrol
Of stars walks round about the pole,
Their leaves, that to the stalks are curl'd,
Seem to their staves the ensigns furl'd.
Then in some flower's beloved hut
Each bee, as sentinel, is shut,
And sleeps so too; but if once stirr'd,
She runs you through, nor asks the word.
O thou, that dear and happy Isle,
The garden of the world erewhile,
Thou Paradise of the four seas
Which Heaven planted us to please,
But, to exclude the world, did guard
With wat'ry if not flaming sword;
What luckless apple did we taste
To make us mortal and thee waste!
Unhappy! shall we never more
That sweet militia restore,
When gardens only had their towers,
And all the garrisons were flowers;
When roses only arms might bear,
And men did rosy garlands wear?
A Literatura inglesa é muito rica. Nessa seção você vai ter a oportunidade de conhecer autores e gêneros.
Edgar Allan Poe, é considerado por muitos como o "mestre do mistério". Saiba um pouco mais sobre ele e desfrute de um trecho de suas produções.
Edgar Allan Poe nasceu em 19 de janeiro de 1809 em Boston. Seus pais eram atores e aos dois anos, com a morte da mãe, Poe foi entregue à família de John Allan, membro da firma Ellis e Allan, que comercializava tabaco. Morreu em 7 de outubro de 1849 de causas desconhecidas.
Curiosidades: O primeiro livro de Poe "Tamerlane And Other Poems" é tão raro que uma única cópia já foi vendida por $200.000,00.
O excerto abaixo foi escrito por Poe sobre Elizabeth Barret Browning.
Lines after Elizabeth Barret
Hear the steep generations, how they fall
Adown the visionary stairs of Time,
Like supernatural thunders — far yet near,
Sowing their fiery echoes through the hills!
Hear the far generations — how they crash,
From crag to crag, down the precipitous Time,
In multitudinous thunders that upstartle,
Aghast, the echoes from their cavernous lairs
In the visionary hills!
11 de Janeiro de 1845. Trechos retirados do Review escrito por Poe para o Broadway Journal.
Saiba mais sobre o Edgar Allan Poe no http://www.poebrasil.com.br/
Conheça agora uma antiga lenda americana...
Native American Legends
The song of Creation
A Hopi Legend
The dark purple light rises in the north,
A yellow light rises in the east.
Then we of the flowers of the earth come forth
To receive a long life full of joy.
We call ourselves the Butterfly maidens.
Both male and female make their prayers to the east,
Make the respectful sign to the Sun, our Creator.
The sounds of bells ring through the air,
Making a joyful sound throughout the land,
Their joyful echo resounding everywhere.
Humbly I ask my Father,
The perfect one, Taiowa, our Father,
The perfect one, creating the beautiful life
Shown to us by the yellow light,
To give us perfect light at the time of the red light.
The perfect one laid out the perfect plan
And gave to us a long span of life,
Creating song to implant joy in life.
On this path of happiness, we the Butterfly maidens
Carry out his wishes by greeting our Father Sun.
The song resounds back from our Creator with joy,
And we of the earth repeat it to our Creator.
At the appearing of the yellow light,
Repeats and repeats again in the joyful echo,
Sounds and resounds for times to come.
The First People of the First World did not answer her: they could not speak. Something had to be done. Since Spider Woman received her power from Sótuknang, she had to call him and ask him what to do. So she called Palöngawhoya and said, "Call your Uncle. We need him at once."
Palöngawhoya, the echo twin, sent out his call along the world axis to the vibratory centers of the earth, which resounded his message throughout the universe. "Sótuknang, our Uncle, come at once! We need you!" All at once, with the sound of a mighty wind, Sótuknang appeared in front of them. "I am here, why do you need me so urgently?"
Spider Woman explained, " As you commanded me, I have created these First People. They are fully and firmly formed, they are properly colored, they have life and movement. But they cannot talk. That is the proper thing they lack. So I want you to give them speech. Also the wisdom and the power to reproduce, so that they might enjoy their life and give thanks to the Creator."
So Sótuknang gave them speech, a different language to each color, with respect for each other's difference. He also gave them the wisdom and the power to reproduce and multiply.
Then he said to them, "With all these I have given you this world to live on and to be happy. There is only one thing I ask of you: to respect the Creator at all times. Wisdom, harmony, and respect for the love of the Creator who made you: may it grow and never be forgotten among you as long as you live."
So the First People went their directions, were happy, and began to multiply.